The understanding of the structure of hadrons and nuclei, and in particular of spatial distributions of partons, encoded in Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), and transverse momentum dependent distributions, encoded in Transverse Momentum Distributions (TMDs), are key questions of the modern nuclear physics. The knowledge of 3-D partonic structure of nucleons and nuclei is relevant for studies in proton colliders, even at the LHC energies. For example, the transverse-momentum spectrum of vector bosons produced in DrellYan-like processes at the LHC is influenced by the contribution of intrinsic partonic transverse momentum. The formalisms of TMDs and GPDs provide a framework for the three-dimensional imaging of the nucleon and nucleus experimentally.

Flavor decomposition of 3D PDFs requires reliable and model independent technique for the extraction of transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions from the experimental observables. Various assumptions involved in preliminary extraction of TMDs and GPDs from available data, have yet to allow credible estimates of systematic errors associated with those assumptions, preventing also useful projections for the statistics needed for extraction of relevant 3D PDFs. A similar situation exists for hadron-hadron collision experiments looking to extract TMDs from their anticipated data. Factorization, operator definitions and gauge invariance of parton densities are important ingredients of the 3D PDF extraction framework.

During the past several years enormous efforts have been devoted on understanding how various spin-azimuthal asymmetries observed in semi-inclusive and exclusive measurements can be described in terms of QCD factorization using TMDs and GPDs. A crucial prerequisite for a global analysis is the development of a Monte Carlo event generators including transverse degrees of freedom in a systematic way that is applicable in a wide range of energies. Several programs have been developed covering different aspects of TMD and GPD analysis and using different sets of models for TMDs and GPDs. Various assumptions used in different extraction frameworks require strict procedures for validation of the extracted 3D PDFs.

Development of calculational tools, which would allow for easy comparison of results, also using libraries of PDFs like TMDlib in the extraction and validation stage, will be important to understand systematics due to different models and parametrizations. It is essential to identify outstanding issues in calculations of radiative corrections and their integration into data analysis procedures. Examples include treatment of bremsstrahlung beyond peaking approximation, resummation of multiphoton emission, two-photon exchange effects for TMD and GPD measurements, and Coulomb corrections for SIDIS on heavy nuclei. Due to lack of the analysis framework the current physics program of the EIC doesn’t cover observables involving hadrons produced in the target fragmentation region, which can shed light on the non-perturbative structure of the nucleon.

Extending the studies of the nucleon structure beyond the traditional current fragmentation, when a hadron in the target fragmentation region is observed in association with another hadron in the current fragmentation region will provide a new window to study the nucleon complex structure. In spite of being now available for a decade and in spite of numerous dedicated theoretical and phenomenological studies, the underlying mechanisms for observables at 1/Q level remain not understood and the issue of factorization is not clarified. Twist-3 azimuthal asymmetries were the first experimentally established single spin phenomena in SIDIS, and are among the largest and clearest asymmetries. The detailed understanding of these data belongs to the most important and challenging goals. It is relevant to investigate to what extent 3D proton structure may be important not only for factorization of hard processes but also for the understanding of soft particle production and, in particular, of the multiparton interactions which are found to be needed at low to moderate transverse momenta for Monte Carlo simulations to describe experimental data on underlying events, particle multiplicities and spectra.

Double parton interactions including parton’s transverse momentum dependence are starting to be investigated, as is the role of parton’s transverse momentum in the interpretation of energy flow measurements, charged particle multiplicities, and underlying events at the LHC Run II. The associated initial-state / final-state color correlations at small qT could be studied to examine factorization-breaking contributions in the region of very small transverse momenta.

Another aspect of current research involves QCD studies in the nuclear medium. Many aspects of research envisioned for 12 GeV JLab program has direct relevance for LHC physics. Such as the detailed extraction of nuclear PDFs including x > 1 region, understanding of the dynamics of the nuclear medium modification of QCD observables as well using tagged processes to study the space time evolution of quarks to observed hadrons. Recent advanced in nuclear short-range correlation studies at JLab opened new venues of QCD studies that my be influenced from the short-range structure of the nuclei. These are the dominance of the proton-neutron short range correlations that can result in the flavor dependence of medium modification of partonic distributions. The understanding such phenomena may be crucial for analysis of the neutrino- nuclei DIS processes aimed at extraction of the standard model parameters.

The emerging subject of Nuclear QCD research is studies of medium modification of GPDs and TMDs that can exhibit strong sensitivity to the nuclear structure at short distances. Finally, another important part of the program will be studies of hadronization processes in tagged nuclear SIDIS. The experimental advanced made in recent years in detecting slow hadrons in nuclear fragmentation region created new opportunities of probing DIS processes at different stages of hadronization at varying kinematics of tagged hadrons. On the other hand, low energy nuclear physics is focused on the origin of matter and its evolution in the universe. The question addresses the self organization of nucleons and the emergence of new phenomena. The science is also about the nuclear force, the limits of binding of nucleons to nuclei as you go to the extremes of neutron richness or proton richness on the chart of nuclides.

Studies of nuclear structure in low energy nuclear physics studies the low lying excited states of nuclei and trace the evolution of nuclear shapes as one goes from stability exotic nuclei either on the proton-rich or the neutron-rich side. An important application of low energy nuclear physics is in Nuclear Astrophysics and the attempt to understand the synthesis of the elements in the cosmos as well as the life-span and energy generation of stars. Nuclear Astrophysics studies involve measurements of reaction cross sections with protons and/or alphas to study energy generation in the evolution of a star’s life. Solar temperatures correspond to very low energies in the laboratory and nuclear reactions and their cross-sections yield important information regarding the likelihood of stars of varying masses and lifetimes to produce elements. Nuclear Reactions and cross sections can also give important information about Coulomb tunneling, low lying resonances that affect the cross sections, and are mostly important in simulations of nucleosynthesis in various stellar and cosmic processes. There are also measurements of nuclear level lifetimes that can be applied to fundamental symmetries, CPT violation studies, etc.

Another application of low energy nuclear science is the production of isotopes of medical interest. Isotope production is a valuable societal contribution of nuclear science. The tools and techniques of low energy nuclear science can be applied at the 18 MeV cyclotron facility in Yerevan. The 18 MeV cyclotron can provide beams of protons that can be used on heavy metals to produce neutrons. An example is at Los Alamos LANSCE facility (http://lansce.lanl.gov/). There are also cyclotrons that use the proton beam on Uranium oxides, such as 238U that fission and produced nuclei with distributions in the A=90 and A=130 regions. Examples of this include IGISOL at Jyvaskyla, Finland. These products can be studied by fast timing methods using the beta decay as a trigger in coincidence with gamma rays. These exotic nuclei can also be studied for the likelihood to beta-decay or to emit neutrons after beta decay to measure beta delayed neutron emission probabilities. The latter two things are important for IAEA in design of nuclear waste treatment and new reactor design as well as nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure. It is also possible to build traps to contain radioactive nuclei and to measure their masses by the frequencies. The proton charge radius studies are uniquely connecting three basic domains in modern physics: nuclear, particle and atomic physics. The precise knowledge of this quantity is central to advance our understanding about how QCD works in the non-perturbative region. It is also a crucial input to high precision tests of QED based on hydrogen Lamb shift measurements. The discrepancy between determination of proton charge radius using electron scattering and hydrogen Lamb shift measurements and measurements using muonic hydrogen Lamb shift, is known as the “proton radius puzzle”. It led to intense theoretical efforts aiming at explaining this disagreement and triggered a worldwide development of new experimental programs.

Cyclotron technology is largely disseminated into the medical and radio-pharmaceutical community. In particular, cyclotron-based systems devoted to radioisotope production, both for therapy and diagnostics, are commercially available and used since many years. Today, the requirement for high beam intensities is becoming more and more important. As a consequence, and favored by continuous developments in target technology and on ion sources, the maximum beam intensity available from these cyclotrons has increased, with years, from a few hundred µA to a few mA allowing development of outstanding research programs in nuclear science, condensed matter physics and accelerator physics. In particular, cyclotrons for energy range 18-30 MeV are widely used for medicine intended isotopes production, applied tasks, material wear and many other applications.